Ensemble Models

In this post, let us explore:

  • Ensemble Models
  • Bagging
  • Boosting
  • Stacking

Ensemble Models/Methods/Learning

Ensembling is clubbing predictions from different models to get better performance. How to club different predictions from different models to get a single prediction? There are different ways of doing it.

  • Bagging
  • Boosting
  • Stacking

These are the major types of ensembles. To understand bagging and boosting very clearly, I recommend you to watch these two YouTube videos: bagging and boosting.
Let us understand these three types of ensembles, one by one.

  • Bootstrap aggregating (Bagging)

Sometimes, bagging method is also called averaging method. In bagging, we build models independently (or parallel estimation). Then average the predictions in case of regression problems, use the mode in case of classification tasks.

The main intention here is to reduce the over-fitting (reduce the variance). Base estimators are strong models such as fully developed decision trees.

Examples: BaggingClassifier, BaggingRegressor and Random Forests (RandomForestClassifier and RandomForestRegressor) in scikit-learn.

  • Boosting
Unlike bagging, in boosting estimation is sequential. Here we combine different weak learners (weak base estimators such as shallow decision trees) to produce a better performing model. Main intention here is to reduce under-fitting (to reduce the bias).
Examples: AdaBoost ( AdaBoostClassifier and AdaBoostRegressor), Gradient Tree Boosting(GradientBoostingClassifier and GradientBoostingRegressor) in scikit-learn.
  • Stacking (Stacked generalization)
In stacking, the predictions from different models are combined using another model (commonly using logistic regression). The model used to combine the predictions from other models is called meta-model.


  1. https://stats.stackexchange.com/questions/18891/bagging-boosting-and-stacking-in-machine-learning
  2. https://scikit-learn.org/stable/modules/ensemble.html

In this post we have explored various types of ensembles. If you have any questions or suggestions, please do share.

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